Portugal is a constitutional republic, with a president and prime minister in executive roles, and multi-party elections.

Systemic Discrimination
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Constitution and government

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of thought, conscience and religion, as well as freedom of expression and freedom of assembly. These rights are generally respected in practice. The law prohibits employers from discriminating against individuals on the basis of religion or belief, and requires reasonable accommodation of employees’ religious practices.

The government maintains a separate agreement with the Roman Catholic Church under the terms of a 1940 concordat with the Holy See, as amended in 2004 to comply with subsequent legislation. The concordat allows the Catholic Church to receive a percentage of the income tax voluntarily allocated by taxpayers to various institutions in their annual tax returns. A taxpayer may allocate a portion of his or her tax payment to any registered religious group.

The law allows each religious group to negotiate its own concordat-style agreement with the government. This system is not extended to Humanist, secular or other philosophical groups.

Education and children’s rights

Public secondary schools offer an optional survey course on world religions taught by lay teachers. Religious groups may offer optional religion instruction through the schools, provided the course is taught by lay teachers and ten or more students of the faith attend the class. Religious group representatives have the right to approve the course’s instructors. All schools, both public and private, are required to accommodate the religious practices of students, including rescheduling tests if necessary (whether this extends to secular holidays or any non-religious practices is unclear).