Kosovo is a multi-party democratic republic bordered by the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro and Serbia. Kosovo became a UN protectorate following the Kosovo War of 1999 with prolonged tensions and violence between its Albanian and Serb populations. Kosovo declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Serbia continues to claim the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija, and Kosovo’s independence remains unrecognised by Russia and China, along with five EU member states, however 108 UN states recognise Kosovo as a sovereign state.

 
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Constitution and government

The constitution affirms the right of freedom of expression, conscience, and religion for all residents regardless of their religious convictions. It provides for the separation of religious groups from public institutions and for equal rights for all religious groups, stipulates the country does not have an official religion, is a secular state and prohibits discrimination based on religion and ethnicity.

Freedom of expression, advocacy of humanist values

While the constitution protects freedoms of expression and the press, it makes exceptions for speech that provokes ethnic hostility. Freedom of assembly is guaranteed by the constitution, but with safeguards for national security and public order.